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Drinking is linked to partying, benefiting on-trade sales, and is strongest among men in their 20s. Many low-income consumers cannot afford packaged products, while many religious consumers and women drink little if at all. Guinness has innovated successfully in response to competition from artisanal alcohol, launching variants in modern formats such as Orijin bitters and spirit-based RTDs. In future, sales will be boosted by expanding domestic production, economic growth and urbanisation.
This report analyses the market for alcoholic drinks in Ghana. For the purposes of the study, the market has been defined as follows:
Explanations of terminology used in this report are as follows:
GBO refers to Global Brand Owner, which is the ultimate owner of a brand.
NBO refers to National Brand Owner, which is the company licensed to distribute a brand on behalf of a GBO. The NBO may be a subsidiary of a GBO or it may be a completely separate company.
Off-trade refers to sales of alcoholic drinks through retail outlets including super/hypermarkets, discounters, convenience stores, internet and other store and non-store channels.
On-trade refers to sales through bars, restaurants, cafés, hotels and other catering establishments.
Market sizes are researched at category level, lower data levels are modelled.
Private imports/cross border sales, black market sales, duty free sales and institutional sales are excluded from coverage.
A sizeable minority of the Ghanaian population does not drink alcohol. This includes most of the country's sizeable Muslim community, which accounted for around 18% of the total population in Ghana's most recent census of 2012. Devout Christians also often abstain from alcohol, with the end of the review period seeing a surge in the number of Pentecostal abstainers.
Women also tend to consume less alcohol than men, chiefly due to the division of household labour. Women are generally expected to take care of their home and family, even those in full-time employment. This results in women having less leisure time to socialise over alcoholic drinks, with most being at home in the evening. It is also considerably less socially acceptable for women to be intoxicated, with a number of popular Christian preachers urging women to abstain from alcoholic drinks towards the end of the review period. Women are most likely to drink at parties and celebrations, while younger women are also increasingly socialising in bars and nightclubs. However, even in these settings, women continue to drink significantly less in comparison to men.
Drinking alone is stigmatised in Ghana. Drinking alcohol is seen as a social activity by most consumers and linked to partying and celebration. Drinking alone at home is generally viewed as a problem or an addiction, rather than being viewed as an acceptable means of relaxation. The on-trade is thus strong, despite higher mark-ups. If artisanal alcoholic drinks were to be included in sales figures, on-trade sales would dominate. Off-trade sales are dominated by purchases for parties and celebrations. The only product area that sees significant at-home consumption with meals is still light grape wine, although interest in this area is limited to a small number of mid- to high-income consumers.
There is a strong tradition for artisanal alcoholic drinks in Ghana, with pito (millet beer), asaana (maize beer), palm wine and akpeteshie (palm wine/sugarcane spirit) all popular. Many regions have their own traditional recipes, with consumption particularly strong in rural areas. The government does not generally attempt to control the production, sale or consumption of these alcoholic drinks unless specific batches prove to be unsafe, recognising their cultural role and also their role in the rural economy. These drinks are cheap and widely available, posing strong competition to packaged alcoholic drinks. However, many consumers are trading up to packaged alcoholic drinks in search of higher quality and product safety. A number of deaths were linked to akpeteshie towards the end of the review period, with these being heavily reported in the media.
Akpeteshie is also used to prepare traditional herbal bitters, with these viewed by many as having medicinal properties. This spirit is very strong and low in price and is often viewed as contributing to alcoholism. Akpeteshie saw its image improve towards the end of the review period however, due to being used by fashionable cocktail bars such as The Republic in Accra as a basis for a wide range of drinks. This spirit is thus attracting a growing number of mid- to high-income consumers in the city.
Within artisanal beer, pito is particularly popular in northern Ghana but is consumed across the country, often featuring at weddings and christenings. This beer is served warm or cold and in rural areas is generally purchased directly from informal producers. Asaana is viewed as easy and quick to produce and often made at home, while also purchased from informal stalls as a thirst-quencher and cooler. Palm wine features heavily at most celebrations and ceremonies and like other forms of alcoholic drinks benefits from a healthy reputation in addition to its longstanding tradition.
Beyond artisanal alcoholic drinks, counterfeit alcoholic drinks are also significant in Ghana. These are produced within the country and also smuggled in. The authorities are keen to prosecute counterfeiters but generally rely on information from complainants. A man was for example arrested in Accra in 2014 and found to be counterfeiting a wide range of spirits. Bitters are particularly targeted by counterfeiters due to their popularity in Ghana.
Smuggling is also significant. Import controls are lax and a degree of corruption also enables many to smuggle in untaxed alcoholic drinks. These are attractive to many consumers due to their lower price and see particularly strong sales to low-income urban consumers. Smuggling is particularly strong in economy spirits.
While inflation is expected to remain high, consumer spending power is likely to be boosted by improved economic growth in the forecast period. Alcoholic drinks will also benefit from a number of other factors in the forecast period, including ongoing population growth and urbanisation. Ghana's young adults aged 18-years-old and upwards will continue to be attracted by effective marketing and new product development, with Guinness likely to remain a pioneer in this area. This company proved successful towards the end of the review period by offering modern variants of artisanal drinks, such as Orijin bitters and spirit-based RTDs and Tappers Palms wine-based RTDs. Such launches are likely to inspire local players to launch copycat variants and should further encourage a shift towards packaged alcoholic drinks.
Beer is expected to be the main contributor to value growth at constant 2016 prices in the forecast period, benefiting from the leading players continuing to expand production capacity. Domestic mid-priced lager will particularly benefit from this investment, as will non/low alcohol beer. The latter will benefit from a healthy image and the fact that many religious consumers are keen to avoid alcohol, even while socialising or celebrating. Within spirits, bitters will continue to see surging popularity, thanks to consumers trading up to packaged options, with economy sachets likely to perform particularly well among low-income groups. Vodka is also expected to gain popularity as a party drink in the forecast period, having a fashionable and Western image among young adults.
There is a large low-income group in Ghana, with an estimated 45% of the population living below the international poverty line of USD2/day at the end of the review period. These consumers are mainly rural and are unable to afford packaged alcoholic drinks. They instead enjoy artisanal alcoholic drinks such as palm wine, pito (millet beer), asaana (maize beer) and akpeteshie (palm wine/sugarcane spirit). Many artisanal alcoholic drinks are viewed as healthy and thus also consumed by women, although in much smaller quantities, with this particularly true of weaker artisanal beer and wine. Akpeteshie will rarely be consumed in its original form by women but medicinal bitters are often produced in rural areas based on this spirit and will be drunk in small quantities. Most low-income consumers buy artisanal alcoholic drinks in informal bars, which are widely present, particularly in rural areas but also in major cities. Urban low-income consumers also tend to enjoy sachet spirits, particularly bitters, which offer around 50ml at low prices.
Mid-income consumers also often continue to enjoy artisanal spirits, particularly palm wine and bitters. However, this group is increasingly trading up to packaged alcoholic drinks, due to concerns over hygiene and safety. There were a number of deaths linked to akpeteshie towards the end of the review period, with these being widely publicised in the media. Mid-income consumers are also increasingly aspirational and attracted by well-publicised brands, particularly within beer where there are a number of strong domestically-produced brands sold at affordable prices. Men are the heaviest drinkers within mid-income groups, with many attracted by sachet spirits due to their low cost. These consumers are also increasingly attracted by spirit-based RTDs, following the launch of Guinness' Orijin in 2015, which is based on bitters and benefits from the traditional appeal of these drinks.
The most affluent 10% of society includes high-income Ghanaians and a growing number of expatriates. The richest Ghanaians are often attracted by brands that are viewed as offering a high status, such as Peroni and Stella Artois in imported premium lager and Johnnie Walker in whiskies. Expatriates tend to be more pragmatic within beer, viewing domestic premium lager as offering good quality. This group will however often opt for imported global spirits brands and are also most likely to be interested in wine.
Ghana faced economic uncertainty towards the end of the review period, with high inflation creating budgetary problems for many households. This impacted demand for some higher-priced product areas, such as sparkling wine and brandy. Within beer, lower-priced brands proved most successful, while affordable bitters attracted many within spirits. Overall demand for packaged alcoholic drinks was not however impacted, with sales continuing to grow. This was due to consumers' growing focus on quality, encouraging many to trade up from artisanal alternatives, while many also regarded alcoholic drinks as an affordable treat and a good means of relaxing with friends during stressful times.
The Ghanaian population is young and continuing to grow, increasing by 13% during the review period and having a median age of just 21 years in 2016. Many young adults aged 18-24-years are attracted by new launches and marketing, with players taking full advantage of the legality of alcoholic drinks marketing. Events marketing is particularly strong, with Guinness supporting its widely popular Orijin bitters and spirit-based RTDs brand with sponsored parties and musical events and also investing in live-feed radio broadcasts for these events. Ongoing population growth is continuing to expand the potential consumer base for alcoholic drinks.
Ghana's road network remains poor in more remote rural areas, although the generally limited demand for packaged alcoholic drinks in these areas is fairly easy to meet. Most rural Ghanaians are unable to afford even economy domestic brands and instead opt for artisanal alcoholic drinks such as pito (millet beer), asaana (maize beer), palm wine and akpeteshie (palm wine/sugarcane spirit). Most rural villages will however also have one or two bars selling low-priced domestic brands such as Club or Star in beer and economy bitters from players such as Kasapreko. The rural road network is improving and saw strong investment in roads from 2013 onwards, with the Oti Damanko-Nakpanduri road set to connect many rural communities when it opens at the start of the forecast period. The urban road network is in contrast well developed, benefiting from Ghana's long-term stability.
Players also face other operational challenges in Ghana, including supply issues for raw materials. Some players such as Guinness are thus investing heavily in supporting domestic farmers' production, with this player buying guaranteed quantities of sorghum, maize and cassava throughout the country. Power supply issues also impact production and inflate costs, including power surges that can damage equipment and shortages.
On-trade sales are strong in alcoholic drinks, although off-trade sales dominate. Even in the off-trade, alcoholic drinks are generally purchased for socialising however. For festivities such as birthday parties, weddings and funerals, large quantities tend to be purchased in the off-trade, with alcoholic drinks specialist retailers dominating. The legal need for an off-trade licence is not enforced in Ghana, with these outlets thus having a widespread presence across the country. Independent small grocers is also a significant channel for beer, reflecting the popularity of impulse purchases with groceries.
Supermarkets is however the most significant distribution channel for wine. This is partly due to the fact that many small alcoholic drinks specialist retailers do not stock wine, with sales via food/drink/tobacco specialists primarily occurring via upmarket wine specialists. In addition, supermarkets benefit from offering a wide range of brands and products to appeal to mid- to high-income consumers. Mid- to high-income consumers are considerably more likely to buy alcoholic drinks via convenience stores, supermarkets and hypermarkets, seeking quality and range, while low-income consumers are more likely to opt for economy products from local alcoholic drinks specialist retailers.
Cross-border/private imports are significant in Ghana. Import controls tend to be lax, with many small-scale importers operating. This can pose problems for authorised importers, who tend to face competition from many other smaller importers offering the same brands. These products are mainly sold via informal markets but are also often sold via independent alcoholic drinks specialist retailers and independent small grocers. This mainly impacts foreign spirit brands, with the bulkier volume of other alcoholic drinks making them less cost-effective to import for small players. A strong preference for domestic beer and bitters results in these product areas being less vulnerable to such imports however.
Duty free sales of alcoholic drinks are small in Ghana, with the country's duty free allowance being low at just one bottle of spirits or wine not exceeding 750ml. Duty free sales do not thus impact on- or off-trade demand in the country.
The legal purchasing age and legal drinking age are both set at 18 years in Ghana.
Underage drinking tends to be limited by cost considerations for most teenagers, with most reliant on their parents for all expenses until university. Most families also keep a close eye on teenagers, with parental curfews common. Most are regarded as children until they have graduated from school, with the majority only beginning to drink after they reach the legal drinking and purchasing age.
Even though underage drinking is not a significant problem in Ghana, leading alcoholic drinks players and the government are already investing in public education campaigns aimed at preventing illegal consumption among underage Ghanaians. 2015 saw Accra Brewery launch a major campaign targeting schoolchildren. This was still ongoing at the end of 2016 and is reaching thousands of teenagers, while a similar large-scale campaign was launched by Guinness in May 2016 entitled Hit the Books, Not the Booze.
Driving with a blood alcohol level of over 0.8g/dl is banned by law for all drivers. This legislation was not widely enforced during the review period however and accidents linked to drink driving remained common.
There was a growing focus on public education campaigns aiming to deter drink driving during the review period, although these mainly stemmed from leading alcoholic drinks player Guinness rather than the government. In addition, this company's Twa Kwano Mmom ("Go the distance instead") campaign targets commercial drivers rather than the general public. This campaign was launched in 2012 and continued to run at the end of the review period, with Guinness running the campaign in partnership with TOTAL Petroleum, University of Ghana's Psychiatry Department, the National Road Safety Commission, Ghana Police's Motor Traffic and Transport Department (MTTD) and commercial drivers' unions. 2016 saw over 4,000 commercial drivers reached, with over 31,000 breathalyser tests. The campaign appears to be working well, with less than 1% of these tests being positive.
There is likely to be a stronger government focus on random breathalyser tests for general drivers in the forecast period. February 2015 saw Accra selected as one of 10 cities to participate in Bloomberg Philanthropies' Global Road Safety Initiative, with this providing technical and media assistance, training and consultancy regarding road safety initiatives for up to five years. As part of this initiative, March 2017 saw the Accra Metropolitan Assembly (AMA) present 20 breathalyser kits to the MTTD for use within the city. In May 2017, the AMA further launched the Accra City Road Safety Initiative, including public education campaigns, enforcement and a focus on safer road design.
There was no legislation banning marketing for alcoholic drinks during the review period, with this area seeing heavy investment. Advertising and sponsorship increased during the review period, as the competitive environment intensified.
In April 2016, members of the Association of Alcohol Manufacturers and Importers (AAMI) signed a Code of Commercial Communications to regulate their conduct, thus aiming to prevent the introduction of stricter legal controls. This covers all marketing channels including TV, radio, online, packaging, discounting, point-of-sale information, product placement and sponsorship. Time constraints on advertising may still be introduced in the forecast period however, with many feeling that these products should not be advertised on TV or radio during the day when children are likely to be exposed to them.
Smoking has been banned in enclosed public places and workplaces since 2012, although smoking remains permitted in designated smoking areas. This ban began to be more widely enforced from 2014 onwards, although many informal or low-end bars/pubs lack designated smoking areas and do little to deter smoking. Smoking is not common in Ghana however, with less than 10% of adults smoking. Consequently, any stricter enforcement of the smoking ban is unlikely to have a heavy impact on on-trade demand for alcoholic drinks, particularly as on-trade outlets are increasingly adding designated smoking areas.
Legally, a licence is required for on- and off-trade outlets to sell alcoholic drinks. This requirement is not however enforced, while there is no legislation covering opening hours for on- and off-trade outlets. Consequently, alcoholic drinks specialist retailers, independent small grocers, supermarkets and hypermarkets all sell these products whenever they are open. Most of these shops open from 0800-1830hrs with a lunch break from 1200-1400hrs on Monday to Friday, with many small stores closing on Saturday afternoons and Sundays. There are numerous small alcoholic drinks specialist retailers present across the country, due to a lack of licensing enforcement.
Due to a lack of enforcement for licensing requirements, on-trade outlets are also widely present in Ghana in both urban and rural areas. These generally open in late-morning and often operate in response to demand, closing only when the last drinkers leave and remaining open into the early morning.
Taxation and duty levies
New excise duties came into force on 3 August 2016, with these aiming to benefit companies that not only produce goods within the country but also use Ghanaian raw materials. As a result of this change, the rate of excise duty payable on beer is determined by the percentage of domestic raw materials used, excluding water. This change will benefit leading players with strong domestic raw material supply networks, such as Guinness. High import taxes offer domestic products a strong price advantage, including 50% tax on imported beer and 25% tax on spirits.
It seems likely that taxation levels will increase further in the forecast period, following the government's launch of a National Alcohol Policy in March 2017. This aims to encourage and promote abstinence and reduce levels of harmful alcohol consumption and identifies increased taxation as a key means of achieving these aims.
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Chart 1 Alcoholic Drinks in Ghana in 2016 Chart 2 Ghana Socioeconomic Trends
Taxation and duty levies
Table 1 Sales of Alcoholic Drinks by Category: Total Volume 2011-2016 Table 2 Sales of Alcoholic Drinks by Category: Total Value 2011-2016 Table 3 Sales of Alcoholic Drinks by Category: % Total Volume Growth 2011-2016 Table 4 Sales of Alcoholic Drinks by Category: % Total Value Growth 2011-2016 Table 5 Sales of Alcoholic Drinks by Category by Off-trade vs On-trade: Volume 2016 Table 6 Sales of Alcoholic Drinks by Category by Off-trade vs On-trade: Value 2016 Table 7 Sales of Alcoholic Drinks by Category by Off-trade vs On-trade: % Volume 2016 Table 8 Sales of Alcoholic Drinks by Category by Off-trade vs On-trade: % Value 2016 Table 9 Forecast Sales of Alcoholic Drinks by Category: Total Volume 2016-2021 Table 10 Forecast Sales of Alcoholic Drinks by Category: Total Value 2016-2021 Table 11 Forecast Sales of Alcoholic Drinks by Category: % Total Volume Growth 2016-2021 Table 12 Forecast Sales of Alcoholic Drinks by Category: % Total Value Growth 2016-2021 Table 13 GBO Company Shares of Alcoholic Drinks: % Total Volume 2012-2016 Table 14 Distribution of Alcoholic Drinks by Format: % Off-Trade Volume 2012-2016 Table 15 Distribution of Alcoholic Drinks by Format by Category: % Off-trade Volume 2016
Chart 3 Beer: Modern Retailer: Supermarket Chart 4 Beer: Modern Retailer: Supermarket Chart 5 Beer: Modern Retailer: Supermarket
Table 16 Sales of Beer by Category: Total Volume 2011-2016 Table 17 Sales of Beer by Category: Total Value 2011-2016 Table 18 Sales of Beer by Category: % Total Volume Growth 2011-2016 Table 19 Sales of Beer by Category: % Total Value Growth 2011-2016 Table 20 Sales of Beer by Off-trade vs On-trade: Volume 2011-2016 Table 21 Sales of Beer by Off-trade vs On-trade: Value 2011-2016 Table 22 Sales of Beer by Off-trade vs On-trade: % Volume Growth 2011-2016 Table 23 Sales of Beer by Off-trade vs On-trade: % Value Growth 2011-2016 Table 24 Forecast Sales of Beer by Category: Total Volume 2016-2021 Table 25 Forecast Sales of Beer by Category: Total Value 2016-2021 Table 26 Forecast Sales of Beer by Category: % Total Volume Growth 2016-2021 Table 27 Forecast Sales of Beer by Category: % Total Value Growth 2016-2021 Table 28 NBO Company Shares of Beer: % Total Volume 2012-2016 Table 29 GBN Brand Shares of Beer: % Total Volume 2012-2016 Table 30 Distribution of Beer by Format: % Off-trade Volume 2012-2016 Summary 1 Beer Pricing: 2016
Chart 6 Wine: Modern Retailer: Supermarket Chart 7 Wine: Modern Retailer: Supermarket Chart 8 Wine: Modern Retailer: Supermarket
Table 31 Sales of Wine by Category: Total Volume 2011-2016 Table 32 Sales of Wine by Category: Total Value 2011-2016 Table 33 Sales of Wine by Category: % Total Volume Growth 2011-2016 Table 34 Sales of Wine by Category: % Total Value Growth 2011-2016 Table 35 Sales of Wine by Off-trade vs On-trade: Volume 2011-2016 Table 36 Sales of Wine by Off-trade vs On-trade: Value 2011-2016 Table 37 Sales of Wine by Off-trade vs On-trade: % Volume Growth 2011-2016 Table 38 Sales of Wine by Off-trade vs On-trade: % Value Growth 2011-2016 Table 39 Forecast Sales of Wine by Category: Total Volume 2016-2021 Table 40 Forecast Sales of Wine by Category: Total Value 2016-2021 Table 41 Forecast Sales of Wine by Category: % Total Volume Growth 2016-2021 Table 42 Forecast Sales of Wine by Category: % Total Value Growth 2016-2021 Table 43 Distribution of Wine by Format: % Off-trade Volume 2012-2016 Summary 2 Wine Pricing: 2016
Chart 9 Spirits: Modern Retailer: Supermarket Chart 10 Spirits: Modern Retailer: Supermarket Chart 11 Spirits: Modern Retailer: Supermarket
Table 44 Sales of Spirits by Category: Total Volume 2011-2016 Table 45 Sales of Spirits by Category: Total Value 2011-2016 Table 46 Sales of Spirits by Category: % Total Volume Growth 2011-2016 Table 47 Sales of Spirits by Category: % Total Value Growth 2011-2016 Table 48 Sales of Spirits by Off-trade vs On-trade: Volume 2011-2016 Table 49 Sales of Spirits by Off-trade vs On-trade: Value 2011-2016 Table 50 Sales of Spirits by Off-trade vs On-trade: % Volume Growth 2011-2016 Table 51 Sales of Spirits by Off-trade vs On-trade: % Value Growth 2011-2016 Table 52 Forecast Sales of Spirits by Category: Total Volume 2016-2021 Table 53 Forecast Sales of Spirits by Category: Total Value 2016-2021 Table 54 Forecast Sales of Spirits by Category: % Total Volume Growth 2016-2021 Table 55 Forecast Sales of Spirits by Category: % Total Value Growth 2016-2021 Table 56 NBO Company Shares of Spirits: % Total Volume 2012-2016 Table 57 GBN Brand Shares of Spirits: % Total Volume 2012-2016 Table 58 Distribution of Spirits by Format: % Off-trade Volume 2012-2016 Summary 3 Spirits Pricing: 2016
Chart 12 Cider/Perry: Modern Retailer: Supermarket
Table 59 Sales of Cider/Perry: Total Volume 2011-2016 Table 60 Sales of Cider/Perry: Total Value 2011-2016 Table 61 Sales of Cider/Perry: % Total Volume Growth 2011-2016 Table 62 Sales of Cider/Perry: % Total Value Growth 2011-2016 Table 63 Sales of Cider/Perry by Off-trade vs On-trade: Volume 2011-2016 Table 64 Sales of Cider/Perry by Off-trade vs On-trade: Value 2011-2016 Table 65 Sales of Cider/Perry by Off-trade vs On-trade: % Volume Growth 2011-2016 Table 66 Sales of Cider/Perry by Off-trade vs On-trade: % Value Growth 2011-2016 Table 67 Forecast Sales of Cider/Perry: Total Volume 2016-2021 Table 68 Forecast Sales of Cider/Perry: Total Value 2016-2021 Table 69 Forecast Sales of Cider/Perry: % Total Volume Growth 2016-2021 Table 70 Forecast Sales of Cider/Perry: % Total Value Growth 2016-2021 Table 71 NBO Company Shares of Cider/Perry: % Total Volume 2012-2016 Table 72 GBN Brand Shares of Cider/Perry: % Total Volume 2012-2016 Table 73 Distribution of Cider/Perry by Format: % Off-trade Volume 2012-2016 Summary 4 Cider/Perry Pricing: 2016
RTDS/HIGH STRENGTH PREMIXES
Chart 13 RTDs/High-Strength Premixes: Modern Retailer: Supermarket Chart 14 RTDs/High-Strength Premixes: Modern Retailer: Supermarket
Table 74 Sales of RTDS/High-Strength Premixes by Category: Total Volume 2011-2016 Table 75 Sales of RTDS/High-Strength Premixes by Category: Total Value 2011-2016 Table 76 Sales of RTDS/High-Strength Premixes by Category: % Total Volume Growth 2011-2016 Table 77 Sales of RTDS/High-Strength Premixes by Category: % Total Value Growth 2011-2016 Table 78 Sales of RTDS/High-Strength Premixes by Off-trade vs On-trade: Volume 2011-2016 Table 79 Sales of RTDS/High-Strength Premixes by Off-trade vs On-trade: Value 2011-2016 Table 80 Sales of RTDS/High-Strength Premixes by Off-trade vs On-trade: % Volume Growth 2011-2016 Table 81 Sales of RTDS/High-Strength Premixes by Off-trade vs On-trade: % Value Growth 2011-2016 Table 82 Forecast Sales of RTDS/High-Strength Premixes by Category: Total Volume 2016-2021 Table 83 Forecast Sales of RTDS/High-Strength Premixes by Category: Total Value 2016-2021 Table 84 Forecast Sales of RTDS/High-Strength Premixes by Category: % Total Volume Growth 2016-2021 Table 85 Forecast Sales of RTDS/High-Strength Premixes by Category: % Total Value Growth 2016-2021 Table 86 NBO Company Shares of RTDs/High-Strength Premixes: % Total Volume 2012-2016 Table 87 GBN Brand Shares of RTDs/High-Strength Premixes: % Total Volume 2012-2016 Table 88 Distribution of RTDs/High-Strength Premixes by Format: % Off-trade Volume 2012-2016 Summary 5 RTDs/High-Strength Premixes Pricing: 2016
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