Environmental Sustainability: Peru

September 2021

Thanks to abundant renewable water reserves, rich forests and biodiversity, and relatively low CO2 emissions Peru stands at the middle among its regional peers in the Environmental Sustainability Index. The country’s position, however, is dragged down by poor municipal waste treatment, inadequate access to electricity, clean fuel, drinking water and sanitation, as well as struggling biodiversity protection and insufficient agricultural sector posing risks of malnutrition.

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The Country Briefings series examine market potential, economic and consumer trends impacting each country and how they are set to change.

Each Country Briefing covers one of these topics:

Economy, Finance and Trade: Understanding the structure, health and potential risks of an economy are important for decision-making within an existing operating environment as well as for expansion strategies. Real GDP growth, inflation and exchange rate fluctuations will directly impact consumer market potential. Import and export trade profiles help gauge how open an economy is to trade and investment, while analysis of government finances can be used to explore macroeconomic stability and susceptibility to economic shocks.

Income and Expenditure: Insights into income, wealth and expenditure of consumers are vital in helping businesses make strategic decisions with regards to which country (or even which region within a country) to enter, which consumer segment to target, which products or services to market, and at which price point. Other factors such as the size and expansion of the middle class and income inequality are also important in helping companies gauge the potential of a country market.

Households: Global shifts in gender, ageing, migration and housing are transforming the size, location,  general make-up as well as income and expenditure of households around the globe, with diverse implications for governments and companies. Households insights can help identify the decision-making processes and consumption tastes of different household groups and types within a country, and assess household appliance and digital readiness that is key for formulating market technology and internet strategies.

Business Dynamics: A stable and competitive business environment is vital to operate efficiently and attract inward investment. Businesses can assess these factors alongside challenges such as corruption, political instability and terrorism, also gain insight into business operating environment and make strategic investment decisions. Transport infrastructure, ICT readiness and labour force dynamics will also identify potential issues with a supply chain and the level of workforce skills.

Commodities: Insights on key sectors directly related to the environmental commodities of a country such as energy, water, pollution, environmental resilience, forest and biodiversity and food and agriculture help businesses to make strategic decisions in relation to environmental and commodities trends, improve brand reputation and ensure long-term operations while ultimately growing the bottom line.

The briefings cover 103 countries and identify topics of crucial interest to planners, marketers and researchers.

Environmental Sustainability: Peru



Despite well-developed hydropower generation, Peru remains vulnerable to fossil fuel price fluctuations
Dealing with municipal waste and plastic pollution remains a looming issue
Rich biodiversity and forests threatened by intensifying human activities and natural disasters
Despite plentiful renewable water reserves, Peru struggles to ensure universal access to drinking water and sanitation
High income inequality and an inefficient agriculture sector pose risk of malnutrition
Low resilience to risks of flooding, earthquakes and tsunamis


Chart 1 Environmental Sustainability Index Peru Chart 2 Global Sustainability Ranking: Peru Chart 3 Energy Ranking: Peru Chart 4 Energy Availability Landscape in Peru Chart 5 Energy Efficiency, Security and Equity Landscape in Peru Chart 6 Pollution Ranking: Peru Chart 7 Air Pollution in Peru Chart 8 Waste and Water Pollution Landscape in Peru Chart 9 Forest and Biodiversity Ranking: Peru Chart 10 Forest and Biodiversity Landscape in Peru Chart 11 Water Ranking: Peru Chart 12 Water Availability, Equity and Security Landscape in Peru Chart 13 Water Security and Efficiency Landscape in Peru Chart 14 Food and Agriculture Ranking: Peru Chart 15 Food and Agriculture Landscape in Peru Chart 16 Role of Agriculture in the Economy of Peru Chart 17 Environmental Resilience Ranking: Peru Chart 18 Environmental Resilience Landscape in Peru

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