As of 2016, Manama made up 69% of Bahrain's GDP and was home to 70% of the population. Only 54% of GVA comes from services in Manama as the city still derives a large share of its economic wealth from petroleum-based industries, although with depleting reserves its influence on Manama's economy is falling. Households are generally wealthy in Manama with average disposable income in the city standing at USD90,400 in 2016, increasing by 12% in real terms over 2011.
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Manama benefits from its petroleum and financial industry which helps prop up labour productivity. Labour productivity in the city was 3.4% greater compared to the rest of the country, although it was significantly behind that of Abu Dhabi, Doha and Riyadh.
Per household disposable income in Manama stood at USD90,400 in 2016 but this was still 7.1% lower than in the rest of the country. Although household income levels in the city are not the highest in the Gulf region, Manama's income distribution is one of the most equal in the region.
In 2016, Manama's household expenditure (excluding housing and transport) reached, on average, USD46,600 on consumer items and was 29% above that of the rest of the country. The city's residents allocate only 13% of their total budget to food and non-alcoholic beverages (compared to 23% in Riyadh and 18% in Kuwait City), which leaves a significant share of earnings for discretionary goods.
Housing and transport combined demand, on average, USD26,000 of spending per household in Manama, as of 2016 - 16% more than in the rest of the country. A strong preference for private vehicles drives up transport costs in the city. At the same time, the share of consumer expenditure on housing is relatively smaller in Manama (25%), compared to the 30% average across the Gulf region.