Sustainability: Colombia

September 2021

Thanks to rich forests and biodiversity, plentiful renewable water resources, low CO2 pollution and a solid agricultural sector, Colombia performed rather well in the Environmental Sustainability Index. Nonetheless, the country struggles to successfully protect its biodiversity, ensure universal access to clean drinking water and improved sanitation facilities, as well as clean fuel for heating and food preparation.

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The Country Briefings series examine market potential, economic and consumer trends impacting each country and how they are set to change.

Each Country Briefing covers one of these topics:

Economy, Finance and Trade: Understanding the structure, health and potential risks of an economy are important for decision-making within an existing operating environment as well as for expansion strategies. Real GDP growth, inflation and exchange rate fluctuations will directly impact consumer market potential. Import and export trade profiles help gauge how open an economy is to trade and investment, while analysis of government finances can be used to explore macroeconomic stability and susceptibility to economic shocks.

Income and Expenditure: Insights into income, wealth and expenditure of consumers are vital in helping businesses make strategic decisions with regards to which country (or even which region within a country) to enter, which consumer segment to target, which products or services to market, and at which price point. Other factors such as the size and expansion of the middle class and income inequality are also important in helping companies gauge the potential of a country market.

Households: Global shifts in gender, ageing, migration and housing are transforming the size, location,  general make-up as well as income and expenditure of households around the globe, with diverse implications for governments and companies. Households insights can help identify the decision-making processes and consumption tastes of different household groups and types within a country, and assess household appliance and digital readiness that is key for formulating market technology and internet strategies.

Business Dynamics: A stable and competitive business environment is vital to operate efficiently and attract inward investment. Businesses can assess these factors alongside challenges such as corruption, political instability and terrorism, also gain insight into business operating environment and make strategic investment decisions. Transport infrastructure, ICT readiness and labour force dynamics will also identify potential issues with a supply chain and the level of workforce skills.

Sustainability: Insights on key sectors directly related to the environmental sustainability of a country such as energy, water, pollution, environmental resilience, forest and biodiversity and food and agriculture help businesses to make strategic decisions in relation to environmental and sustainability trends, improve brand reputation and ensure long-term operations while ultimately growing the bottom line.

The briefings cover 103 countries and identify topics of crucial interest to planners, marketers and researchers.

Sustainability: Colombia



Low import dependency on fossil fuels for electricity generation
While CO2 emissions per unit of output are relatively low, the transportation sector poses an increasing threat to air quality in cities
Alarming deforestation drives domestic and international efforts to protect the Amazon
While Colombia has rich water reserves, universal access to drinking water and sanitation remain major issues
Strong agricultural sector allows Colombia to remain independent from food imports
Intensifying natural disasters and low coping capacities remain main challenges


Chart 1 Environmental Sustainability Index Colombia Chart 2 Global Sustainability Ranking: Colombia Chart 3 Energy Ranking: Colombia Chart 4 Energy Availability Landscape in Colombia Chart 5 Energy Efficiency, Security and Equity Landscape in Colombia Chart 6 Pollution Ranking: Colombia Chart 7 Air Pollution in Colombia Chart 8 Waste and Water Pollution Landscape in Colombia Chart 9 Forest and Biodiversity Ranking: Colombia Chart 10 Forest and Biodiversity Landscape in Colombia Chart 11 Water Ranking: Colombia Chart 12 Water Availability, Equity and Security Landscape in Colombia Chart 13 Water Security and Efficiency Landscape in Colombia Chart 14 Food and Agriculture Ranking: Colombia Chart 15 Food and Agriculture Landscape in Colombia Chart 16 Role of Agriculture in the Economy of Colombia Chart 17 Environmental Resilience Ranking: Colombia Chart 18 Environmental Resilience Landscape in Colombia

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