Sustainability: Greece

September 2021

Due to intense usage of fossil fuels, high air pollution and low environmental resilience, Greece is among the lowest ranked countries in Western Europe in the Environmental Sustainability Index. The country has been facing intensifying effects of global warming, which negatively affect the country’s water security, forest availability and biodiversity. On the other hand, the country has seen a strong push towards renewables and decarbonisation, as part of its long-term climate goals.

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The Country Briefings series examine market potential, economic and consumer trends impacting each country and how they are set to change.

Each Country Briefing covers one of these topics:

Economy, Finance and Trade: Understanding the structure, health and potential risks of an economy are important for decision-making within an existing operating environment as well as for expansion strategies. Real GDP growth, inflation and exchange rate fluctuations will directly impact consumer market potential. Import and export trade profiles help gauge how open an economy is to trade and investment, while analysis of government finances can be used to explore macroeconomic stability and susceptibility to economic shocks.

Income and Expenditure: Insights into income, wealth and expenditure of consumers are vital in helping businesses make strategic decisions with regards to which country (or even which region within a country) to enter, which consumer segment to target, which products or services to market, and at which price point. Other factors such as the size and expansion of the middle class and income inequality are also important in helping companies gauge the potential of a country market.

Households: Global shifts in gender, ageing, migration and housing are transforming the size, location,  general make-up as well as income and expenditure of households around the globe, with diverse implications for governments and companies. Households insights can help identify the decision-making processes and consumption tastes of different household groups and types within a country, and assess household appliance and digital readiness that is key for formulating market technology and internet strategies.

Business Dynamics: A stable and competitive business environment is vital to operate efficiently and attract inward investment. Businesses can assess these factors alongside challenges such as corruption, political instability and terrorism, also gain insight into business operating environment and make strategic investment decisions. Transport infrastructure, ICT readiness and labour force dynamics will also identify potential issues with a supply chain and the level of workforce skills.

Sustainability: Insights on key sectors directly related to the environmental sustainability of a country such as energy, water, pollution, environmental resilience, forest and biodiversity and food and agriculture help businesses to make strategic decisions in relation to environmental and sustainability trends, improve brand reputation and ensure long-term operations while ultimately growing the bottom line.

The briefings cover 103 countries and identify topics of crucial interest to planners, marketers and researchers.

Sustainability: Greece



Support for renewable energy to curb Greece’s dependence on fossil fuels
Strong commitment to cut carbon emissions will support country’s climate goals
Country’s biodiversity to be challenged by extreme weather events
Drought and increasing water stress threaten future water security and availability
Post-pandemic economic recession to put food affordability under further strain
Intensifying heatwaves and fires to become more frequent


Chart 1 Environmental Sustainability Index Greece Chart 2 Global Sustainability Ranking: Greece Chart 3 Energy Ranking: Greece Chart 4 Energy Availability Landscape in Greece Chart 5 Energy Efficiency, Security and Equity Landscape in Greece Chart 6 Pollution Ranking: Greece Chart 7 Air Pollution in Greece Chart 8 Waste and Water Pollution Landscape in Greece Chart 9 Forest and Biodiversity Ranking: Greece Chart 10 Forest and Biodiversity Landscape in Greece Chart 11 Water Ranking: Greece Chart 12 Water Availability, Equity and Security Landscape in Greece Chart 13 Water Security and Efficiency Landscape in Greece Chart 14 Food and Agriculture Ranking: Greece Chart 15 Food and Agriculture Landscape in Greece Chart 16 Role of Agriculture in the Economy of Greece Chart 17 Environmental Resilience Ranking: Greece Chart 18 Environmental Resilience Landscape in Greece

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