Sustainability: Spain

September 2021

Spain performs well in the Sustainability Index, leading in food provision and organic farming, yet facing draining water reserves. The country aims to fully utilise green energy by 2050 and is working on further lowering its reliance on fossil fuels. However, the transportation sector is slower to adapt, standing as one of the main sources of urban pollution. Despite expansion of protected areas, Spain still struggles to protect biodiversity from human activity and climate change effects.

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The Country Briefings series examine market potential, economic and consumer trends impacting each country and how they are set to change.

Each Country Briefing covers one of these topics:

Economy, Finance and Trade: Understanding the structure, health and potential risks of an economy are important for decision-making within an existing operating environment as well as for expansion strategies. Real GDP growth, inflation and exchange rate fluctuations will directly impact consumer market potential. Import and export trade profiles help gauge how open an economy is to trade and investment, while analysis of government finances can be used to explore macroeconomic stability and susceptibility to economic shocks.

Income and Expenditure: Insights into income, wealth and expenditure of consumers are vital in helping businesses make strategic decisions with regards to which country (or even which region within a country) to enter, which consumer segment to target, which products or services to market, and at which price point. Other factors such as the size and expansion of the middle class and income inequality are also important in helping companies gauge the potential of a country market.

Households: Global shifts in gender, ageing, migration and housing are transforming the size, location,  general make-up as well as income and expenditure of households around the globe, with diverse implications for governments and companies. Households insights can help identify the decision-making processes and consumption tastes of different household groups and types within a country, and assess household appliance and digital readiness that is key for formulating market technology and internet strategies.

Business Dynamics: A stable and competitive business environment is vital to operate efficiently and attract inward investment. Businesses can assess these factors alongside challenges such as corruption, political instability and terrorism, also gain insight into business operating environment and make strategic investment decisions. Transport infrastructure, ICT readiness and labour force dynamics will also identify potential issues with a supply chain and the level of workforce skills.

Sustainability: Insights on key sectors directly related to the environmental sustainability of a country such as energy, water, pollution, environmental resilience, forest and biodiversity and food and agriculture help businesses to make strategic decisions in relation to environmental and sustainability trends, improve brand reputation and ensure long-term operations while ultimately growing the bottom line.

The briefings cover 103 countries and identify topics of crucial interest to planners, marketers and researchers.

Sustainability: Spain



Spain to expand renewable energy while closing down coal-burning facilities
Spain to fall behind its waste management targets
Spain aims to declare 30% of its marine surface as a protected area by 2030
Spain to work on developments in water treatment as its freshwater reserves are decreasing
Strong agricultural sector, however, it is negatively affected by rising heat
High resilience, yet the country is challenged by increasingly extreme weather conditions


Chart 1 Environmental Sustainability Index: Spain Chart 2 Global Sustainability Ranking: Spain Chart 3 Energy Ranking: Spain Chart 4 Energy Availability Landscape: Spain Chart 5 Energy Efficiency, Security and Equity Landscape: Spain Chart 6 Pollution Ranking: Spain Chart 7 Air Pollution: Spain Chart 8 Waste and Water Pollution Landscape: Spain Chart 9 Forest and Biodiversity Ranking: Spain Chart 10 Forest and Biodiversity Landscape: Spain Chart 11 Water Ranking: Spain Chart 12 Water Availability, Equity and Security Landscape: Spain Chart 13 Water Security and Efficiency Landscape: Spain Chart 14 Food and Agriculture Ranking: Spain Chart 15 Food and Agriculture Landscape: Spain Chart 16 Role of Agriculture in the Economy: Spain Chart 17 Environmental Resilience Ranking: Spain Chart 18 Environmental Resilience Landscape: Spain

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