Global Population Trends

August 2023

Ageing, urbanisation and migration remain the major drivers shaping the global population. The number of seniors worldwide was increasing in 2022 and is expected to continue growing to 2040. The number of births is declining globally due to falling fertility rates, later marriages and other factors influencing lifestyle changes. The end of COVID-19 restrictions, political unrest and the search for better living conditions continue to encourage increasing mobility and migration around the world.

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This report comes in PPT.

Key Findings

Generation Alpha’s spending power to increase significantly

As Gen Alpha were born into a digital world, they continue to drive solutions with their desire for instant satisfaction and research and review capabilities. Despite the limited purchasing power that this cohort had in 2022, their prominence and spending capabilities will increase significantly by 2040, when they will become the largest generational grouping.

Urbanisation not without its challenges

Due to higher average purchasing power and concentration of citizens living in cities, urbanisation will be a major driver of consumption and lifestyle trends. The expansion of African cities will further drive urbanisation, with both Luanda in Angola and Dar es Salaam in Tanzania set to reach megacity status by 2040. However, rapid growth is accompanied by several challenges, most notably around affordable housing, infrastructure development and access to public transport.

Declining birth rates threaten economic growth

Global birth rates are dropping, driven by factors such as the rising cost of living, female participation in the workforce, higher divorce rates and general postponement of childbearing. In several leading Asian economies, low fertility is threatening economic stability due to future labour shortages, weaker consumer demand and lower productivity.

Senior population living longer, not necessarily healthier

Challenges around prevention and treatment of disease for the ageing population persist globally. The dynamic growth of seniors aged 65+, coupled with low birth rates, will threaten the social welfare systems of a number of economies. Opportunities do emerge, however, as tailored products and services for the elderly in areas such as healthcare and leisure continue to develop.

Key findings
Global population snapshot
Five key population trends
Areas of opportunity
Global population in 2022: Summary
Middle East and Africa recording the strongest population growth
Seniors maintain their status in population composition
Rapid urbanisation results in major traffic congestion
Increased migration from Eastern Europe to flee conflict
Milestone of nine billion citizens brings own set of challenges
Urbanisation to the forefront in Middle East and Africa
Generation Alpha will take the reins in shaping consumption trends by 2040
Medium-to-long-term strategies should aim at appealing to Gen Alpha’s values
Global birth rates are forecast to keep declining over the next two decades
Despite rising life expectancy, health issues continue to pose a threat
Top population trends for economies, businesses and consumers
Living longer, but not better: More problems affecting mental and physical health
Mental health checks: The interface between mental health and technology
Urban Expansion: Rapid expansion of city hubs shapes urban development
BVG Jelbi integrating mobility into a one-stop application for Berliners
Pandemic baby bust: Declining birth rates threaten Asian economic growth
Japanese government playing matchmaker
Singles Unite: Shift from family orientated to solo-minded
Jendaya shows that “just for me” options are gaining ground in emerging markets
The great migration: Diversity and connectivity transcend boundaries
AirAsia Super App provides a comprehensive travel and lifestyle platform
Five key population trends
Total population
Population aged 0-14 years
Population aged 15-64 years
Population aged 65+ years
Median age of population
Urban population
Population density
Net migration
Life expectancy at birth


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