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Economy, Finance and Trade: Egypt

March 2021

In 2020, the Egypt’s economy recorded growth, as upwards drivers remained prominent. Nevertheless, the coronavirus pandemic harmed tourism revenues and containment measures put pressure on public finances, slowing down economic progress. Over foreseeable future, vaccinating the population, recovering global markets, and implementation of the African Continental Free Trade Area (AfCFTA) will form the core driving factors that could lead to a speedy recovery.

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The Country Briefings series examine market potential, economic and consumer trends impacting each country and how they are set to change.

Each Country Briefing covers one of these topics:

Economy, Finance and Trade: Understanding the structure, health and potential risks of an economy are important for decision-making within an existing operating environment as well as for expansion strategies. Real GDP growth, inflation and exchange rate fluctuations will directly impact consumer market potential. Import and export trade profiles help gauge how open an economy is to trade and investment, while analysis of government finances can be used to explore macroeconomic stability and susceptibility to economic shocks.

Income and Expenditure: Insights into income, wealth and expenditure of consumers are vital in helping businesses make strategic decisions with regards to which country (or even which region within a country) to enter, which consumer segment to target, which products or services to market, and at which price point. Other factors such as the size and expansion of the middle class and income inequality are also important in helping companies gauge the potential of a country market.

Households: Global shifts in gender, ageing, migration and housing are transforming the size, location,  general make-up as well as income and expenditure of households around the globe, with diverse implications for governments and companies. Households insights can help identify the decision-making processes and consumption tastes of different household groups and types within a country, and assess household appliance and digital readiness that is key for formulating market technology and internet strategies.

Business Dynamics: A stable and competitive business environment is vital to operate efficiently and attract inward investment. Businesses can assess these factors alongside challenges such as corruption, political instability and terrorism, also gain insight into business operating environment and make strategic investment decisions. Transport infrastructure, ICT readiness and labour force dynamics will also identify potential issues with a supply chain and the level of workforce skills.

Sustainability: Insights on key sectors directly related to the environmental sustainability of a country such as energy, water, pollution, environmental resilience, forest and biodiversity and food and agriculture help businesses to make strategic decisions in relation to environmental and sustainability trends, improve brand reputation and ensure long-term operations while ultimately growing the bottom line.

The briefings cover 103 countries and identify topics of crucial interest to planners, marketers and researchers.

Economy, Finance and Trade: Egypt



Egypt proved resilient against the COVID-19 pandemic, yet medium-term prospects look dim
The Central Bank of Egypt adopts an expansionary monetary policy to offset slowing economic growth
Foreign trade harmed by the pandemic, but the AfCFTA provides some positivity
Foreign investment remains subdued, but reforms facilitate private sector initiatives
The COVID-19 pandemic shifts policy makers’ plans



Chart 1 Economic Landscape of Egypt: 2020 Chart 2 Real GDP Growth in Egypt: 2010-2040 Chart 3 GDP Size and Growth: 2015-2040 Chart 4 Gross Value Added by Sector in Egypt: 2020 Chart 5 Domestic Demand: 2015 and 2020 Chart 6 Standartised Consumer Confidence Index: 2010-2021 Chart 7 Productivity: 2015 and 2020 Chart 8 Productivity by Sector in Egypt: 2020


Chart 9 Monetary Landscape of Egypt: 2020 Chart 10 Inflation: 2010-2040 Chart 11 Average Inflation: 2010-2040 Chart 12 Interest Rates in Egypt: 2010-2021 Chart 13 Exchange Rates: 2010-2020 Chart 14 Money Supply Growth and Money Velocity in Egypt: 2015-2021


Chart 15 Foreign Trade Landscape of Egypt: 2020 Chart 16 Exports in Egypt: 2014-2021 Chart 17 Exports by Commodity in Egypt: 2020 Chart 18 Top 10 Export Destinations: 2020 Chart 19 Imports in Egypt: 2014-2021 Chart 20 Imports by Commodity in Egypt: 2020 Chart 21 Top 10 Import Origins: 2020


Chart 22 Investment Landscape of Egypt: 2020 Chart 23 FDI intensity: 2019 Chart 24 Foreign Direct Investment Inflows and Outflows in Egypt: 2014-2019 Chart 25 Gross Fixed Capital Formation in Egypt: 2010-2021


Chart 26 Government Budget Landscape of Egypt: 2020 Chart 27 Public Debt: 2020 Chart 28 Government Revenue: 2020 Chart 29 Government Expenditure: 2020 Chart 30 Government Expenditure by Economic Type in Egypt: 2020 Chart 31 Government Expenditure by Function in Egypt: 2020


Chart 32 Top 2 Biggest Global Risks vs. Baseline Scenario: Egypt

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