Retail in Malaysia

March 2023
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Overview:

Understand the latest market trends and future growth opportunities for the Retailing industry in Malaysia with research from Euromonitor International's team of in-country analysts – experts by industry and geographic specialisation.

Key trends are clearly and succinctly summarised alongside the most current research data available. Understand and assess competitive threats and plan corporate strategy with our qualitative analysis, insight and confident growth projections.

Data and analysis in this report provides further detailed coverage dedicated to the following key categories, where applicable:

  • Convenience Stores
  • Discounters
  • Hypermarkets
  • Supermarkets
  • Traditional Grocery Retailers
  • Apparel and Footwear Specialist Retailers
  • Electronics and Appliance Specialist Retailers
  • Health and Beauty Specialist Retailers
  • Home and Garden Specialist Retailers
  • Department Stores
  • Variety Stores
  • Warehouse Clubs
  • Direct Selling
  • Homeshopping
  • Vending

If you're in the Retailing industry in Malaysia, our research will help you to make informed, intelligent decisions; to recognise and profit from opportunity, or to offer resilience amidst market uncertainty.

The Retailing in Malaysia report includes:

  • Analysis of key supply-side and demand trends
  • Detailed segmentation of international and local products
  • Historic volume and value sizes, company and brand market shares
  • Five year forecasts of market trends and market growth
  • Robust and transparent research methodology, conducted in-country

This report answers:

  • What is the market size of Retailing in Malaysia?
  • Which are the leading retailers in Retailing in Malaysia?
  • How are products distributed in Retailing in Malaysia?
  • How is the rise of e-commerce and the expansion of modern grocery retail impacting traditional retail?
  • How significant are discounters and private label in Malaysia?
  • How has the impact of COVID-19 and national lockdown impacted consumer demand?
  • Which formats have benefited the most from stockpiling and enforced home seclusion?
  • How will the wider economic impact of COVID-19 shape the retail landscape in the future?
  • Where is future growth expected to be most dynamic?

Retail in Malaysia

Retail in 2022: The big picture
Store-based retailing sales bounce back as crowds return to physical stores
New format/variation of stores introduced to retain customers
What next for retail?
Informal retail
Opening hours for physical retail
Summary 1 Standard Opening Hours by Channel Type 2022
Seasonality
Chinese New Year
New Year End
Hari Raya Aidilfitri (or Hari Raya Puasa)
11.11 Single Day Sales
Table 1 Sales in Retail by Retail Offline vs Retail E-Commerce: Value 2017-2022
Table 2 Sales in Retail by Retail Offline vs Retail E-Commerce: % Value Growth 2017-2022
Table 3 Sales in Retail Offline by Channel: Value 2017-2022
Table 4 Sales in Retail Offline by Channel: % Value Growth 2017-2022
Table 5 Retail Offline Outlets by Channel: Units 2017-2022
Table 6 Retail Offline Outlets by Channel: % Unit Growth 2017-2022
Table 7 Sales in Retail E-Commerce by Product: Value 2017-2022
Table 8 Sales in Retail E-Commerce by Product: % Value Growth 2017-2022
Table 9 Grocery Retailers: Value Sales, Outlets and Selling Space 2017-2022
Table 10 Grocery Retailers: Value Sales, Outlets and Selling Space: % Growth 2017-2022
Table 11 Sales in Grocery Retailers by Channel: Value 2017-2022
Table 12 Sales in Grocery Retailers by Channel: % Value Growth 2017-2022
Table 13 Grocery Retailers Outlets by Channel: Units 2017-2022
Table 14 Grocery Retailers Outlets by Channel: % Unit Growth 2017-2022
Table 15 Non-Grocery Retailers: Value Sales, Outlets and Selling Space 2017-2022
Table 16 Non-Grocery Retailers: Value Sales, Outlets and Selling Space: % Growth 2017-2022
Table 17 Sales in Non-Grocery Retailers by Channel: Value 2017-2022
Table 18 Sales in Non-Grocery Retailers by Channel: % Value Growth 2017-2022
Table 19 Non-Grocery Retailers Outlets by Channel: Units 2017-2022
Table 20 Non-Grocery Retailers Outlets by Channel: % Unit Growth 2017-2022
Table 21 Retail GBO Company Shares: % Value 2018-2022
Table 22 Retail GBN Brand Shares: % Value 2019-2022
Table 23 Retail Offline GBO Company Shares: % Value 2018-2022
Table 24 Retail Offline GBN Brand Shares: % Value 2019-2022
Table 25 Retail Offline LBN Brand Shares: Outlets 2019-2022
Table 26 Retail E-Commerce GBO Company Shares: % Value 2018-2022
Table 27 Retail E-Commerce GBN Brand Shares: % Value 2019-2022
Table 28 Grocery Retailers GBO Company Shares: % Value 2018-2022
Table 29 Grocery Retailers GBN Brand Shares: % Value 2019-2022
Table 30 Grocery Retailers LBN Brand Shares: Outlets 2019-2022
Table 31 Non-Grocery Retailers GBO Company Shares: % Value 2018-2022
Table 32 Non-Grocery Retailers GBN Brand Shares: % Value 2019-2022
Table 33 Non-Grocery Retailers LBN Brand Shares: Outlets 2019-2022
Table 34 Forecast Sales in Retail by Retail Offline vs Retail E-Commerce: Value 2022-2027
Table 35 Forecast Sales in Retail by Retail Offline vs Retail E-Commerce: % Value Growth 2022-2027
Table 36 Forecast Sales in Retail Offline by Channel: Value 2022-2027
Table 37 Forecast Sales in Retail Offline by Channel: % Value Growth 2022-2027
Table 38 Forecast Retail Offline Outlets by Channel: Units 2022-2027
Table 39 Forecast Retail Offline Outlets by Channel: % Unit Growth 2022-2027
Table 40 Forecast Sales in Retail E-Commerce by Product: Value 2022-2027
Table 41 Forecast Sales in Retail E-Commerce by Product: % Value Growth 2022-2027
Table 42 Grocery Retailers Forecasts: Value Sales, Outlets and Selling Space 2022-2027
Table 43 Grocery Retailers Forecasts: Value Sales, Outlets and Selling Space: % Growth 2022-2027
Table 44 Forecast Sales in Grocery Retailers by Channel: Value 2022-2027
Table 45 Forecast Sales in Grocery Retailers by Channel: % Value Growth 2022-2027
Table 46 Forecast Grocery Retailers Outlets by Channel: Units 2022-2027
Table 47 Forecast Grocery Retailers Outlets by Channel: % Unit Growth 2022-2027
Table 48 Non-Grocery Retailers Forecasts: Value Sales, Outlets and Selling Space 2022-2027
Table 49 Non-Grocery Retailers Forecasts: Value Sales, Outlets and Selling Space: % Growth 2022-2027
Table 50 Forecast Sales in Non-Grocery Retailers by Channel: Value 2022-2027
Table 51 Forecast Sales in Non-Grocery Retailers by Channel: % Value Growth 2022-2027
Table 52 Forecast Non-Grocery Retailers Outlets by Channel: Units 2022-2027
Table 53 Forecast Non-Grocery Retailers Outlets by Channel: % Unit Growth 2022-2027

DISCLAIMER

Summary 2 Research Sources

Convenience Retailers in Malaysia

KEY DATA FINDINGS

99 Speedmart and KK Supermart driving the expansion of convenience stores across Malaysia
Fresh food and ready-to-eat selections create new avenue for growth
Labour shortages put the brakes on growth
Expansion set to continue despite increasing competition
Increasing focus on fresh and ready-to-eat foods, while players will also need to take care of the online side of their business
Tobacco bill poses a threat to the future of convenience stores
Table 54 Convenience Retail: Value Sales, Outlets and Selling Space 2017-2022
Table 55 Convenience Retail: Value Sales, Outlets and Selling Space: % Growth 2017-2022
Table 56 Sales in Convenience Retailers by Channel: Value 2017-2022
Table 57 Sales in Convenience Retailers by Channel: % Value Growth 2017-2022
Table 58 Convenience Retail GBO Company Shares: % Value 2018-2022
Table 59 Convenience Retail GBN Brand Shares: % Value 2019-2022
Table 60 Convenience Retail LBN Brand Shares: Outlets 2019-2022
Table 61 Convenience Retail Forecasts: Value Sales, Outlets and Selling Space 2022-2027
Table 62 Convenience Retail Forecasts: Value Sales, Outlets and Selling Space: % Growth 2022-2027
Table 63 Forecast Sales in Convenience Retailers by Channel: Value 2022-2027
Table 64 Forecast Sales in Convenience Retailers by Channel: % Value Growth 2022-2027

Supermarkets in Malaysia

KEY DATA FINDINGS

Supermarkets sees a small recovery as restrictions are lifted
Grab completes acquisition of Jaya Grocer and puts it on a strong footing
Shortage of essential items puts pressure on households in Malaysia
Premium supermarkets showing strong potential, but overall sales likely to see only a partial recovery
Expansion likely to focus on smaller concept stores
Healthy eating trend set to influence supermarkets
Table 65 Supermarkets: Value Sales, Outlets and Selling Space 2017-2022
Table 66 Supermarkets: Value Sales, Outlets and Selling Space: % Growth 2017-2022
Table 67 Supermarkets GBO Company Shares: % Value 2018-2022
Table 68 Supermarkets GBN Brand Shares: % Value 2019-2022
Table 69 Supermarkets LBN Brand Shares: Outlets 2019-2022
Table 70 Supermarkets Forecasts: Value Sales, Outlets and Selling Space 2022-2027
Table 71 Supermarkets Forecasts: Value Sales, Outlets and Selling Space: % Growth 2022-2027

Hypermarkets in Malaysia

KEY DATA FINDINGS

Hypermarkets shift towards smaller concept stores
Moderate sales growth as consumers resume their pre-pandemic routines
Econsave continues to expand while Lotus takes the leading position following Tesco acquisition
Saturated market likely to create intense competition
Hypermarkets likely to remain popular among larger families and existing customer base
Increasing focus on sustainability
Table 72 Hypermarkets: Value Sales, Outlets and Selling Space 2017-2022
Table 73 Hypermarkets: Value Sales, Outlets and Selling Space: % Growth 2017-2022
Table 74 Hypermarkets GBO Company Shares: % Value 2018-2022
Table 75 Hypermarkets GBN Brand Shares: % Value 2019-2022
Table 76 Hypermarkets LBN Brand Shares: Outlets 2019-2022
Table 77 Hypermarkets Forecasts: Value Sales, Outlets and Selling Space 2022-2027
Table 78 Hypermarkets Forecasts: Value Sales, Outlets and Selling Space: % Growth 2022-2027

Discounters in Malaysia

KEY DATA FINDINGS

Discounters sees strong growth but the channel faces strong competition
Acquisition of Tunas Manja Group aborted
Discounters focus on lower-income neighbourhoods as they look to expand
Discounters expansion opportunities lie in rural and suburban areas
Tunas Manjas looking to invest in the future with further store openings expected
The i-KeeP programme set to remain favourable to the growth of discounters
Table 79 Discounters: Value Sales, Outlets and Selling Space 2017-2022
Table 80 Discounters: Value Sales, Outlets and Selling Space: % Growth 2017-2022
Table 81 Discounters GBO Company Shares: % Value 2018-2022
Table 82 Discounters GBN Brand Shares: % Value 2019-2022
Table 83 Discounters LBN Brand Shares: Outlets 2019-2022
Table 84 Discounters Forecasts: Value Sales, Outlets and Selling Space 2022-2027
Table 85 Discounters Forecasts: Value Sales, Outlets and Selling Space: % Growth 2022-2027

Small Local Grocers in Malaysia

KEY DATA FINDINGS

Small local grocers return to growth but continue losing ground to modern grocery retailers
E-wallet payments grow in popularity
Players focus on offering healthier products to appeal to consumers
Small local grocers likely to face mounting competition from convenience stores
Improving the in-store environment seen as a key factor in increasing customer satisfaction
A further decline expected in the number of small local grocers
Table 86 Small Local Grocers: Value Sales, Outlets and Selling Space 2017-2022
Table 87 Small Local Grocers: Value Sales, Outlets and Selling Space: % Growth 2017-2022
Table 88 Small Local Grocers Forecasts: Value Sales, Outlets and Selling Space 2022-2027
Table 89 Small Local Grocers Forecasts: Value Sales, Outlets and Selling Space: % Growth 2022-2027

General Merchandise Stores in Malaysia

KEY DATA FINDINGS

Department stores sees a partial recovery as players expand into suburban areas to cater to the demand for convenience
Department stores losing appeal to fast fashion chains and e-commerce
Variety stores gaining traction driven by Eco Shop’s aggressive expansion plans
Modern looking stores are important to retaining footfall in department stores
Department stores likely to invest further in e-commerce
Variety stores set for further expansion as consumers go in search of value
Table 90 General Merchandise Stores: Value Sales, Outlets and Selling Space 2017-2022
Table 91 General Merchandise Stores: Value Sales, Outlets and Selling Space: % Growth 2017-2022
Table 92 Sales in General Merchandise Stores by Channel: Value 2017-2022
Table 93 Sales in General Merchandise Stores by Channel: % Value Growth 2017-2022
Table 94 General Merchandise Stores GBO Company Shares: % Value 2018-2022
Table 95 General Merchandise Stores GBN Brand Shares: % Value 2019-2022
Table 96 General Merchandise Stores LBN Brand Shares: Outlets 2019-2022
Table 97 General Merchandise Stores Forecasts: Value Sales, Outlets and Selling Space 2022-2027
Table 98 General Merchandise Stores Forecasts: Value Sales, Outlets and Selling Space: % Growth 2022-2027
Table 99 Forecast Sales in General Merchandise Stores by Channel: Value 2022-2027
Table 100 Forecast Sales in General Merchandise Stores by Channel: % Value Growth 2022-2027

Apparel and Footwear Specialists in Malaysia

KEY DATA FINDINGS

Apparel and footwear sales on the path to recovery
Physical stores remain highly popular as a source of pleasure as well serving a practical purpose
Competition remains stiff due to the fragmented nature of the fashion industry
New shopping centres point towards a bright future for the channel
An omnichannel approach will be essential to improving sales and building consumer engagement
Membership programmes could help retailers to retain customers and enhance the customer experience
Table 101 Apparel and Footwear Specialists: Value Sales, Outlets and Selling Space 2017-2022
Table 102 Apparel and Footwear Specialists: Value Sales, Outlets and Selling Space: % Growth 2017-2022
Table 103 Apparel and Footwear Specialists GBO Company Shares: % Value 2018-2022
Table 104 Apparel and Footwear Specialists GBN Brand Shares: % Value 2019-2022
Table 105 Apparel and Footwear Specialists LBN Brand Shares: Outlets 2019-2022
Table 106 Apparel and Footwear Specialists Forecasts: Value Sales, Outlets and Selling Space 2022-2027
Table 107 Apparel and Footwear Specialists Forecasts: Value Sales, Outlets and Selling Space: % Growth 2022-2027

Appliances and Electronics Specialists in Malaysia

KEY DATA FINDINGS

Pent-up demand drive sales of household appliances in 2022
Inflationary pressures drive up average selling price
Senheng resumes its expansion plans after investing in e-commerce
Macroeconomic factors put downward pressures on demand
Smart homes are an area of opportunity as consumer interest grows
Emergence of Buy Now Pay Later services may support sales
Table 108 Appliances and Electronics Specialists: Value Sales, Outlets and Selling Space 2017-2022
Table 109 Appliances and Electronics Specialists: Value Sales, Outlets and Selling Space: % Growth 2017-2022
Table 110 Appliances and Electronics Specialists GBO Company Shares: % Value 2018-2022
Table 111 Appliances and Electronics Specialists GBN Brand Shares: % Value 2019-2022
Table 112 Appliances and Electronics Specialists LBN Brand Shares: Outlets 2019-2022
Table 113 Appliances and Electronics Specialists Forecasts: Value Sales, Outlets and Selling Space 2022-2027
Table 114 Appliances and Electronics Specialists Forecasts: Value Sales, Outlets and Selling Space: % Growth 2022-2027

Home Products Specialists in Malaysia

KEY DATA FINDINGS

Mr DIY continues to pursue aggressive expansion plans
Megastore format proving popular while e-commerce continues to develop
IKEA remains the leading retailer of homewares and home furnishings with good value positioning
Mr DIY set to continue its aggressive store expansion
Uncertain outlook for home products specialists as Malaysia’s housing market comes under pressure
Inevitable shift towards e-commerce likely to result in a growing focus on an omnichannel retailing model
Table 115 Home Products Specialists: Value Sales, Outlets and Selling Space 2017-2022
Table 116 Home Products Specialists: Value Sales, Outlets and Selling Space: % Growth 2017-2022
Table 117 Sales in Home Products Specialists by Channel: Value 2017-2022
Table 118 Sales in Home Products Specialists by Channel: % Value Growth 2017-2022
Table 119 Home Products Specialists GBO Company Shares: % Value 2018-2022
Table 120 Home Products Specialists GBN Brand Shares: % Value 2019-2022
Table 121 Home Products Specialists LBN Brand Shares: Outlets 2019-2022
Table 122 Home Products Specialists Forecasts: Value Sales, Outlets and Selling Space 2022-2027
Table 123 Home Products Specialists Forecasts: Value Sales, Outlets and Selling Space: % Growth 2022-2027
Table 124 Forecast Sales in Home Products Specialists by Channel: Value 2022-2027
Table 125 Forecast Sales in Home Products Specialists by Channel: % Value Growth 2022-2027

Health and Beauty Specialists in Malaysia

KEY DATA FINDINGS

Alpro and Big Pharmacy chains see aggressive expansion
Optical goods stores register a strong recovery
Health and personal care sales see healthy growth as restrictions are relaxed
Health and personal care stores expected to benefit from growing interest in beauty and personal care
Pharmacies will remain an important channel despite slower growth
Halal cosmetics and Korean beauty products likely to continue attracting a large following
Table 126 Health and Beauty Specialists: Value Sales, Outlets and Selling Space 2017-2022
Table 127 Health and Beauty Specialists: Value Sales, Outlets and Selling Space: % Growth 2017-2022
Table 128 Sales in Health and Beauty Specialists by Channel: Value 2017-2022
Table 129 Sales in Health and Beauty Specialists by Channel: % Value Growth 2017-2022
Table 130 Health and Beauty Specialists GBO Company Shares: % Value 2018-2022
Table 131 Health and Beauty Specialists GBN Brand Shares: % Value 2019-2022
Table 132 Health and Beauty Specialists LBN Brand Shares: Outlets 2019-2022
Table 133 Health and Beauty Specialists Forecasts: Value Sales, Outlets and Selling Space 2022-2027
Table 134 Health and Beauty Specialists Forecasts: Value Sales, Outlets and Selling Space: % Growth 2022-2027
Table 135 Forecast Sales in Health and Beauty Specialists by Channel: Value 2022-2027
Table 136 Forecast Sales in Health and Beauty Specialists by Channel: % Value Growth 2022-2027

Vending in Malaysia

KEY DATA FINDINGS

Increasing number of vending machines seen in Malaysia as players look to capitalise on the increased demand
Diversified product offerings
Contactless payments on the rise for vending machines
Vending machine category is set to expand in the forecast period
Rising number of vending machines expected to be seen in public locations
More vibrant and diverse product offerings expected to be seen
Table 137 Vending by Product: Value 2017-2022
Table 138 Vending by Product: % Value Growth 2017-2022
Table 139 Vending GBO Company Shares: % Value 2018-2022
Table 140 Vending GBN Brand Shares: % Value 2019-2022
Table 141 Vending Forecasts by Product: Value 2022-2027
Table 142 Vending Forecasts by Product: % Value Growth 2022-2027

Direct Selling in Malaysia

KEY DATA FINDINGS

Amway normalises sales incentives in a move to protect profit margins
Beauty and wellness products continue to be well received in direct selling
Increased costs puts pressure on direct selling
Ringgit recovering since end 2022 should bode well with direct sellers
Strong customer loyalty key to direct selling
E-commerce likely to present threats and opportunities for direct selling
Table 143 Direct Selling by Product: Value 2017-2022
Table 144 Direct Selling by Product: % Value Growth 2017-2022
Table 145 Direct Selling GBO Company Shares: % Value 2018-2022
Table 146 Direct Selling GBN Brand Shares: % Value 2019-2022
Table 147 Direct Selling Forecasts by Product: Value 2022-2027
Table 148 Direct Selling Forecasts by Product: % Value Growth 2022-2027

Retail E-Commerce in Malaysia

KEY DATA FINDINGS

Slower growth in e-commerce as consumers return to physical stores
FashionValet Forced to close as COVID-19 takes its toll on its business operations
Shopee and Lazada marketplaces still market leaders
Growth set to stabilise as e-commerce becomes more mature
Increasing reliance on online shopping among the young generation set to drive sales
Competition likely to intensify over the forecast period
Table 149 Retail E-Commerce by Channel: Value 2017-2022
Table 150 Retail E-Commerce by Channel: % Value Growth 2017-2022
Table 151 Retail E-Commerce by Product: Value 2017-2022
Table 152 Retail E-Commerce by Product: % Value Growth 2017-2022
Table 153 Retail E-Commerce GBO Company Shares: % Value 2018-2022
Table 154 Retail E-Commerce GBN Brand Shares: % Value 2019-2022
Table 155 Forecast Retail E-Commerce by Channel: Value 2022-2027
Table 156 Forecast Retail E-Commerce by Channel: % Value Growth 2022-2027
Table 157 Forecast Retail E-Commerce by Product: Value 2022-2027
Table 158 Forecast Retail E-Commerce by Product: % Value Growth 2022-2027
The following categories and subcategories are included:

Retailing

      • Fashion Vending
      • Health and Beauty Vending
      • Appliances and Electronics Vending
        • Alcoholic Drinks Vending
        • Hot Drinks Vending
        • Soft Drinks Vending
        • Tobacco Products Vending
      • Foods Vending
      • Home Products Vending
      • Other Products Vending
        • Apparel and Footwear Direct Selling
        • Personal Accessories Direct Selling
        • Eyewear Direct Selling
        • Beauty and Personal Care Direct Selling
        • Consumer Health Direct Selling
        • Tissue and Hygiene Direct Selling
        • Consumer Appliances Direct Selling
        • Consumer Electronics Direct Selling
        • Toys and Games Direct Selling
      • Drinks and Tobacco Direct Selling
      • Foods Direct Selling
        • Home Care Direct Selling
        • Home and Garden Direct Selling
        • Pet Care Direct Selling
      • Other Products Direct Selling
        • Apparel and Footwear E-Commerce
        • Personal Accessories E-Commerce
        • Eyewear E-Commerce
        • Beauty and Personal Care E-Commerce
        • Consumer Health E-Commerce
        • Tissue and Hygiene E-Commerce
        • Consumer Appliances E-Commerce
        • Consumer Electronics E-Commerce
        • Toys and Games E-Commerce
      • Drinks and Tobacco E-Commerce
      • Foods E-Commerce
        • Home Care E-Commerce
        • Home and Garden E-Commerce
        • Pet Care E-Commerce
      • Other Products E-Commerce
        • First-Party (1P) Marketplace E-Commerce
        • Third-Party (3P) Marketplace E-Commerce
      • Grocery E-Commerce
      • General Merchandiser E-Commerce
      • Apparel and Footwear Specialist E-Commerce
      • Appliances and Electronics Specialist E-Commerce
      • Home Products Specialist E-Commerce
      • Health and Beauty Specialist E-Commerce
      • Leisure and Personal Goods Specialist E-Commerce
      • Other E-Commerce Retailers

Retailing

Retail is the sale of new and used goods to consumers from a business for personal or household consumption from retail outlets, kiosks, market stalls, vending, direct selling and e-commerce. Retail is the aggregation of Retail Offline and Retail E-Commerce. Excludes specialist retailers of motor vehicles, motorcycles, vehicle parts. Also excludes fuel sales, foodservice sales, rental transactions, and wholesale sales (e.g. Cash and Carry). Sales value excluding or including VAT/Sales Tax. Retail also excludes the informal retail sector. Informal retailing is retail trade which is not declared to the tax authorities. Informal retailing encompasses (a) sales generated by unregistered and unlicensed retailers, i.e. retailers operating illegally, and (b) any proportion of sales generated by a registered and licensed retailer that is not declared to the tax authorities. Unregistered and unlicensed retailers operate predominantly (although not exclusively) as street hawkers or operate open market stalls, as these channels are harder for the authorities to monitor than permanent outlets. Activities in the illegal market, which is usually understood to refer to trade in illegal, counterfeit or stolen merchandise, are included within our definition of informal retailing. Activities in the “grey market”, which is usually understood to refer to trade in legal merchandise that is sold through unauthorized channels – for example cigarettes bought legally in another country, legally imported, but sold at lower prices than in authorized channels – will be included as informal retailing if no tax is paid on sale by the retailer. However if the retailer pays tax – for example on cigarettes bought legally in another country but sold at a lower price than standard – the sale is included within formal retail.

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